A world without a program is like a person without a heart. A computer isn’t capable of performing anything without a program. Well, there is a wide range of programs that are providing benefits. Like the ability of a browser, a program is to explore the Internet.
For instance, Adobe Acrobat falls in the program category of PDF reader. This is used to read-only PDF files very conveniently. Adobe Photoshop comes in the program category of Photo editor.
What is a program?
A program is a collection of instructions that a computer uses. A computer system needs to carry out different specific tasks. This contains a variety of constituents like variables and statements.
This is a way to tell a computer how to process data. The instructions of a program contain processing of input and handling of data. As a result, the output is obtained after the execution of a program.
- Web Browsers
- System Utilities
and numerous others.
History of a program:
This world, the first program, was written by Ada Lovelace in the 1840s. After her name, a programming language was named ADA in the 1980s. Furthermore, in 1948 Tom Kilburn developed the first stored program and named it ‘’the Baby.’’ This could grasp both data in electronic storage and user programs along with processing at electronic speed. And the computer was known as the Small Scale Experimental Machine (SSEM).
Basic Constituents of a Program:
This contains a variety of constituents but the basic ones are given as follows:
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Variables are the names that are provided to computer memory locations. This is done to store data in a program for working purposes. In other words, a variable is used for labeling data along with its storing. These can be called whenever required throughout the program.
Declaring a variable
Variables contain a name along with their data type. These are assigned a value that is stored in a memory location. Each programming language has a different way for a declaration of variables.
Data_type variable_name = value;
For instance, int sum = 1;
Int is a data type, sum is a variable name and 1 is its assigned value. A semi-colon is used to end the declaration.
This is a one-line code that executes a particular task. In other words, it’s the command provided to a computer by a programmer. Many statements can be written in a single program.
Print ‘’Hi, world!’’
A compiler reads the statement and this determines it’s a print statement. So, it moves on to see what requires to be printed. As a result, Hi, world! appears on the computer screen.
These are parts of a code that runs for a given number of times until the completion of the process. This saves precious time for a programmer while writing a program. There are many different types of loops with different syntaxes.
For loop is the conditional iterative statement that is run according to condition. It executes a block of code until the condition is fulfilled.
What is Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence?
for (initialization; condition; increment or decrement;)
- In initialization, a variable is initiated or declared.
- Condition in which a condition is given. If it’s true then the loop body is executed and if it’s false then the loop is terminated.
- Increment means that as it runs a value is added to a variable automatically.
- Decrement means that as the loop body executes a value is decreased.
for (int sum = 1; i>3; ++1;)
What is a programming language?
Programmers use computer languages and it’s known as programming languages. These are used to create programs, instructions, and scripts for computers. This is a collection of instructions to execute a particular task.
Python Script For Solving Mp2 Equations
It serves as a communication tool that enables human beings. To translate their ideas into instructions only computers can understand. Because computers only understand binary digits 0 or 1. The popular languages are Python, Java, and others.
Types of programming language:
There are three types of programming languages and they are described as follows:
Low-Level Programming Language
This language is close to machine codes 0s and 1s. Its speed is fast compared to high-level programming languages. Instructions are written in binary form and directly understood by a computer.
This is also known as machine code or object code. It’s easy to understand by the computer system because this is written in binary digits. For this language, no translator is required. Machine language is machine dependent and it’s hard to modify.
It’s a collection of symbols instead of binary digits like ‘’MUL’’ for multiplication operation, ‘SUB’ for subtraction operation, and many others. The collection of program instructions is also known as ‘’mnemonic codes.’’
These are closely related to English and are easy to understand by a human being. Programmers have made a set of rules along with grammar. Moreover, they follow a specific syntax for writing a program. It uses a specially designed translator for each type of high-level programming language.
This uses procedures that are a sequence of instructions with a unique identity. As a result, this is executed by utilizing a reference to that identity. The maintenance sequence of instruction is very important.
In 1957, this was developed for IBM computers and known as ‘’formula translation.’’ This presented the modular programming concept and its latest version is FORTRAN 77.
This is known as ‘’common business-oriented language.’’ Its development was done in 1959 by Grace Hopper. Its main purpose is for business and commercial applications.
In the honor of Blaise Pascal who invented the mechanical calculator. This is the most suitable for the scientific field developed by Niklaus Wirth. It’s easy to understand and easy to modify.
ADA language is named after Ada Lovelace who was the first programmer. For its development, Pascal’s model was taken as a role model. Most defense programs are written by using it.
In 1972, at Bell Laboratories two developers were Dennis Ritchie and Brian Karnighan. Assembly language code is also supported by this C language. This utilizes a wide range of built-in functions to carry out different tasks.
In this, instructions are written in the English language to retrieve data from a database. They have user-friendly tools that are required to write instructions. It’s easy to write as compared to procedural language. It has SQL (Structured Query Language) and RPG (Report Program Generator).
Object-Oriented Programming Language
In the late 1960s, its idea was proposed and in a few decades, this was taken for writing new software. A constituent of a computer program is called an object. It comprises data structure and a set of modules. This includes C++ and Java as the latest OOP languages.
In a nutshell:
A program is very important and essential for computer systems. They are written in different types of programming languages. They are very beneficial for developing new software.